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Understanding English Grammar,7th (2005)

 
지은이 : Kolln & Funk
출판사 : Longman
판수 : 7 edition
페이지수 : 480 pages
ISBN : 0321316835
예상출고일 : 입금확인후 2일 이내
주문수량 :
도서가격 : 10,000원
적립금 : 300 Point
     

 



This market-leading text for advanced grammar courses is a comprehensive description of sentence structure that encourages students to recognize and use their innate language expertise as they study the systematic nature of sentence grammar. A practical blend of the most useful elements of both traditional and new linguistic grammar, the text emphasizes whole structures, most specifically the ten basic sentence patterns introduced in Chapter 2. Two key features separate this book from others: its clear organization and its user-friendly, accessible language. Both students and teachers appreciate the self-teaching quality that incremental exercises provide throughout the chapters, with answers at the end of the book.

Contents



Preface xv



Part I



Introduction 1



Chapter 1



The Study of Grammar: An Overview 3

The English Grammarians 3

Three Definitions of Grammar 5

Modern Linguistics 6

Structural Grammar 6

Transformational Grammar 7

The Issue of Correctness 8

Language Variety 10

Language Change 11

Language in the Classroom 12

Key Terms 13

Further Reading 13

Classroom Applications 14



Part II



The Grammar of Basic Sentences 15



Chapter 2



Sentence Patterns 17

Chapter Preview 17

Words and Phrases: An Overview 18

Nouns 18

Noun Phrases 19

Verbs 20

Verb Phrases 21

Adjectives and Adverbs 21

Prepositional Phrases 23

The Phrase Structure of Sentences 24

The Sentence Slots 26

The Be Patterns 28

The Linking Verb Patterns 32

The Optional Slots 34

The Intransitive Verb Pattern 35

Exceptions to the Intransitive Pattern 36

Intransitive Phrasal Verbs 37

The Transitive Verb Patterns 39

Transitive Phrasal Verbs 40

The Indirect Object Pattern 41

The Object Complement Patterns 44

Compound Structures 47

Exceptions to the Ten Sentence Patterns 48

Imperative Sentences (Commands) 49

Punctuation and the Sentence Patterns 50

Diagramming the Sentence Patterns 50

Notes on the Diagrams 52

The Main Line 52

The Noun Phrase 52

The Verb Phrase 53

The Prepositional Phrase 54

Compound Structures 55

Punctuation 55

Key Terms 55

Sentences for Practice 56

Questions for Discussion 57

Classroom Applications 59



Chapter 3



Expanding the Main Verb 60

Chapter Preview 60

The Five Verb Forms 60

Auxiliary뾙erb Combinations 63

The Modal Auxiliaries 67

The Subjunctive Mood 69

Tense and Aspect 70

Using the Verb Forms 71

Exceptions to the Rule 73

The Stand-In Auxiliary Do 73

The Passive Voice 75

Changing Active Voice to Passive 75

Recognizing Passive Voice 77

The Passive Get 79

The Transitive뾒assive Relationship 80

Changing Passive Voice to Active 81

Diagramming the Passive 83

The Verb System of African American

Vernacular English 86

Key Terms 87

Sentences for Practice 87

Questions for Discussion 88

Classroom Applications 90



Chapter 4



Transforming the Basic Patterns 92

Chapter Preview 92

Interrogative Sentences 93

Do Support 97

Emphatic Sentences 97

Imperative Sentences 98

Exclamatory Sentences 100

Other Sentence Transformations 101

The There Transformation 101

The Cleft Sentence 105

Key Terms 106

Sentences for Practice 107

Questions for Discussion 107

Classroom Applications 109



Part III



Expanding the Sentence 111

Form and Function 111



Chapter 5



Modifiers of the Verb: Adverbials 114

Chapter Preview 114

Adverbs 116

Prepositional Phrases 118

Nouns and Noun Phrases 121

Verb Phrases 124

Dangling Infinitives 126

Clauses 127

Punctuation of Adverbials 130

Key Terms 132

Sentences for Practice 132

Questions for Discussion 133

Classroom Applications 134



Chapter 6



Modifiers of the Noun: Adjectivals 136

Chapter Preview 136

The Determiner 138

Adjectives and Nouns 139

Prepositional Phrases 144

Relative Clauses 146

Participial Phrases 151

Prenoun Participles 154

Passive Participles 155

The Participle as Object Complement 155

Movable Participles 157

Dangling Participles 158

Participles as Adverbials 160

Punctuation of Clauses and Participles 161

Avoiding Comma Errors 163

Multiple Modifiers 165

Other Postnoun Modifiers 167

Infinitives 167

Noun Phrases 167

Adjectives 168

Adverbs 168

Key Terms 170

Sentences for Practice 171

Questions for Discussion 172

Classroom Applications 174



Chapter 7



The Noun Phrase Functions: Nominals 176

Chapter Preview 176

The Nominal Slots 176

Appositives 177

Punctuation of Appositives 178

Noun Phrase Substitutes 179

Gerunds 179

The Pattern of the Gerund 182

The Subject of the Gerund 184

Dangling Gerunds 185

Infinitives 186

The Subject of the Infinitive 188

Nominal Clauses 190

The Expletive That 191

Interrogatives 193

Yes/No Interrogatives 195

Punctuation of Nominal Clauses 196

Nominals as Delayed Subjects 197

Key Terms 198

Sentences for Practice 198

Questions for Discussion 199

Classroom Applications 201



Chapter 8



Sentence Modifiers 203

Chapter Preview 203

Nouns of Direct Address: The Vocatives 207

Interjections 207

Subordinate Clauses 208

Punctuation of Subordinate Clauses 209

Elliptical Clauses 210

Absolute Phrases 213

Appositives 215

Relative Clauses 216

Key Terms 218

Sentences for Practice 218

Questions for Discussion 219

Classroom Applications 221



Chapter 9



Coordination 223

Chapter Preview 223

Coordination Within the Sentence 223

Punctuation 223

Elliptical Coordinate Structures 225

Subject뾙erb Agreement 227

Parallel Structure 228

Coordinating Complete Sentences 229

Conjunctions 229

Semicolons 230

Colons 231

Diagramming the Compound Sentence 232

Key Terms 233

Sentences for Practice 234

Questions for Discussion 235

Classroom Applications 236



Part IV



Words and Word Classes 239



Chapter 10



Morphemes 242

Chapter Preview 242

Bases and Affixes 244

Bound and Free Morphemes 244

Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes 245

Allomorphs 248

Homonyms 249

Compound Words 250

Key Terms 251

Questions for Discussion 251

Classroom Applications 253



Chapter 11



The Form Classes 254

Chapter Preview 254

Nouns 255

Noun Derivational Suffixes 255

Noun Inflectional Suffixes 257

The Meaning of the Possessive Case 259

Irregular Plural Inflections 260

Plural-Only Forms 261

Collective Nouns 261

Semantic Features of Nouns 262

Verbs 264

Verb Derivational Affixes 264

Verb Inflectional Suffixes 265

Adjectives 266

Adjective Derivational Suffixes 267

Adjective Inflectional Suffixes 267

Subclasses of Adjectives 269

Adverbs 271

Adverb Derivational Suffixes 272

Adverb Inflectional Suffixes 273

Key Terms 275

Questions for Discussion 275

Classroom Applications 278



Chapter 12



The Structure Classes 280

Chapter Preview 280

Determiners 280

The Expanded Determiner 284

Auxiliaries 285

Qualifiers 288

Prepositions 290

Simple Prepositions 290

Phrasal Prepositions 292

Conjunctions 293

Coordinating Conjunctions 294

Correlative Conjunctions 294

Conjunctive Adverbs

(Adverbial Conjunctions) 295

Subordinating Conjunctions 296

Relatives 297

Interrogatives 297

Expletives 298

There 298

That 298

Or 299

As 299

If and Whether (or not) 300

Particles 301

Key Terms 301

Questions for Discussion 302

Classroom Applications 303



Chapter 13



Pronouns 305

Chapter Preview 305

Personal Pronouns 306

Case 307

Gender 308

Reflexive Pronouns 311

Intensive Pronouns 313

Reciprocal Pronouns 313

Demonstrative Pronouns 314

Relative Pronouns 315

Interrogative Pronouns 316

Indefinite Pronouns 316

Key Terms 319

Questions for Discussions 319

Classroom Applications 321



Part V



Grammar for Writers 323



Chapter 14



Rhetorical Grammar 325

Chapter Preview 325

Sentence Patterns 326

Basic Sentences 326

The Linking Be and Metaphor 327

Cohesion 327

Sentence Rhythm 329

End Focus 330

Sentence Transformations 332

Choosing Verbs 333

The Overuse of Be 335

The Passive Voice 336

The Abstract Subject 339

The Shifting Adverbials 341

The Adverbial Clause 342

The Adverbs of Emphasis 345

The Common Only 346

Metadiscourse 346

Style 348

Word Order Variation 349

Ellipsis 350

The Coordinate Series 350

The Introductory Appositive Series 351

The Deliberate Sentence Fragment 352

Repetition 353

Using Gender Appropriately 354

Key Terms 359



Chapter 15



Purposeful Punctuation 360

Chapter Preview 360

Making Connections 361

Compounding Sentences 361

Compounding Structures Within

Sentences 362

Connecting More Than Two

Parts: The Series 362

Separating Prenoun Modifiers 363

Identifying Essential and Nonessential

Structures 364

Signaling Sentence Openers 365

Signaling Emphasis 365

Using Apostrophes for Contraction and Possessive Case 366



Part VI



Glossary of Grammatical Terms 369



Answers to the Exercises 385



Index 443
This market-leading book provides a systemic way to understand grammar based upon the instinct found in speaking. With schools still teaching grammar, the authors encourage the readers of this book to consider themselves grammar experts, simply clarifying in rules the innate knowledge of grammar we all use from the moment we speak. Current and future teachers will now be able to execute their grammar lessons with a better understanding of the theories and structures that are the foundation of grammar. While this is especially appropriate for teachers, its logical approach and clear explanation make it a benefit for anyone who wants to know how English works. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
"I'm a fiction writer. And there are four books within reach of my writing desk. The most recent addition has been Martha Kolln's Understanding English Grammar. This bad boy has it all, folks. If you're like me, you get tripped up on lie and lay like the rest of us, and those kinds of words (and the rules underlying them) are at the very heart of what UEG sets out to clarify. I think I first went to Kolln's masterpiece for help with prepositions. I don't know who first introduced prepositions into the English language, man, but I'd like beat him with a wet dish rag!

As Kolln says on page 320: "Prepositions are among the most difficult words in the language for foreign speakers to master." I'd take this a step further; I'd say they're the most difficult words for _English_ speakers to master. A couple of examples she lists:

Be sure to fill out the form carefully.
Be sure to fill in the form carefully.

He wasn't fired.
He didn't get fired.

Can _you_ spot the correct usage above? Well, if it gives you pause then Understanding English Grammar may be the book for you. It is a model of grammatical clarity and a wonderful reference book to turn to in times of grammatical doubt:~)

Other books I keep close by my writing desk include: "The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms," Richard Lanham's "A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms," and The Holy Bible. If cleanliness is next to Godliness, grammatical perfection is like Zen awareness. You know it's possible to attain, but achieving it is another matter altogether. Kolln's book can help -- with the grammar, that is.

Yours,
Stacey "

"I own the 3rd edition of this book. I don't know if the comments I have will still apply to this edition, but here they are anyway.
I looked everywhere for a book that illustrated grammar instruction through diagramming sentences, and this is the only one I've found! If you aren't into that, don't let it discourage you. They are only used as illustrations and to show the similarities and differences between sentence types.
This book takes a very logical approach to grammar that I was very thankful for and which was very easy for me to follow, as it added just the right next bit of information as I was ready for it. It was just what I was looking for."
 
"This is a structural grammar, fairly similar to traditional grammar. Basically, what this book does is set up a classification system for analyzing English sentences. It doesn't discuss how English sentences are generated, doesn't present phrase structure rules, and doesn't include much information on how to actually use the language (the kind of thing that ESL grammar texts include). It does a pretty good, if somewhat superficial and incomplete, job of presenting a classification scheme, which is a bit old fashioned these days. For those who like a traditional approach to grammar, the diagrams will be welcome, though there are some gaps that I would have liked filled (how to diagram a cleft sentence, for instance). There is a wee bit of transformational-influenced grammar, particularly in the discussion of verb phrases, where tree diagrams are used and phrase-structure rules (of a sort) are given: VP = MVP + (COMPLEMENTS); MVP = AUX + MV; AUX = (MODAL) + (HAVE) + (BE); AUX = TENSE + (MODAL) + (HAVE + {-en}) + (BE + {-ing}). But there isn't much of this in the book, which makes it perhaps a bit dated but much more student-friendly than a book that uses more of a transformational-generative approach. I think Klammer et al.'s "Analyzing English Grammar" is similar but more sophisticated (though still not cutting edge), though less student-friendly. The same may be true of Huddleston and Pullum's "A Student's Introduction to English Grammar." (I haven't quite made up my mind about Huddleston and Pullum's text.)

One other point about Kolln's book: it isn't constructed very well; the binding is already beginning to crack after just a few months. But the font, the graphics, etc. are just fine."

"I got this book for a Linguistics class on English Grammar. It is well-organized, accessible, and the examples aren't completely dry. Plus, there are exercises for practice in each chapter with answers to check yourself in the back. My professor is a little disorganized in her lecture style, but this book tells me everything I need to know in a straightforward manner, so I can go to class and just use her lecture as extra clarification. All in all, I recommend this book for anyone who wants to learn how to diagram sentences or any of the numerous other quirks of English grammar."
 
"It turns out that this handbook makes a huge success of introducing the structural work on English syntax. This compendious guide will never prove to be a disppointment to those who see the value of structuralism."
 
"I have been using this as the text in my grammar class at Stephen F. Austin State University and I find it very helpful. It is a wonderful place to start for anyone wanting to be a better writer. If you can find the workbook that goes along with it I suggest using it. My only complaint is the sequence of the chapeters. I would start with the last section and then work my forward."
 
"I have just suffered through this book for a college grammar course and I was left in a muddle by this text. This book made me believe I understood it all, until I realized the authors did not discuss the exceptions such as the parallel uses of words listed under one category that really could be in two or three categories. Sometimes the authors gave such unclear explanations that I was left with many questions as to when the rule would really apply. And the organization of the book seemed backwards. Some of the end chapters needed to be discussed at the beginning. But what really upset me was the dishonesty. Giving us the line that descriptive grammar was so much better than prescriptive grammar (arbitrary rules), they inferred that language is like arithmetic, that there are rules to describe how language works. Unfortunately language is not so precise. Sometimes 2 plus 2 did not equal four, as their rule stated. There were many ways to interpret words and fit them into their forms and functions, yet this ambiguity was not admitted. Some of grammar will always be prescriptive. After believing I understood grammar, this book painted my knowledge of grammar in a confusing shade of gray."
 
"I was very disappointed. I expected a readable, well-organized explanation of the rules of English grammar and punctuation that would also function as a reference. Instead, I found it to be rather poorly explained, hard to follow, and focused on issues I didn't care about. The book is basically descriptive grammar, which tries (as I understand it) to deduce the rules of the language rather than state them. I just want to know what I should or should not do, or when there's disagreement I want that stated. Complicated terminology was used and then later introduced. The sentence diagramming tended to confuse me rather than help.

You're a lot better off with a good style guide. I recommend the New York Public Library Guide to Style and Usage. You can read it from cover to cover if you have the time, and everything is very clearly and systematically explained."
 
"own the second edition of this book. Simply put, if you are comfortable with the interpolation of linguistic concepts and transformational-generative grammar with traditional English grammar, then this is definitely the book for you. If, however, you either disdain the relegation of traditional grammatical terminology in favor of the transformational type, or simply feel that the two grammars should be kept separate, then I fear that you will find this book confusing, at best, or downright irritating."
 
"How would one know how much english grammar could be learned as an adult. The author makes it easy
to understand the "accepted english standars of grammar" so all can learn."
 
"This book was here quickly and when shipped back after
dropping a class, money was put back in my account
quickly...great way to buy a book!!!

"There seems to be a concerted effort by the author to make this as complicated as possible."

"The book that I received was in great condition! The timing that I received the book in was horrible! The company did not supply a tracking number so that I could estimate the time in which I would receive the package and I feel as if I wasted money paying for express shipping!Exercise Book for Understanding English Grammar "

"The book arrived within days of purchasing and in condition described. Would purchase from them again."
 
Actually, Understanding English Grammar (8th Edition) (UEG) is a well-written textbook and workbook with many SERIOUS mistakes included in both the textbook and the workbook.

I rated this book one star for several reasons:

The book is tiny. I am fat and have fat fingers. This book may as well have been a little joke book contained in a package of Cracker Jacks.

The book has several directional mistakes in addtion to spelling errors where correct spelling is needed. (IUN Professor Allegrezza caught several mistakes and misprints; my classmates caught other mistakes and misprints. I am taking credit here for their discoveries. LOL.)

The book was printed in an ugly font. I am used to elegance and visual clarity in textbooks. If you want me to learn challenging material and want me to believe your spin, put the words in a crisp, clean-looking font, like Ariel.

The book's cover is ugly. While the blue is multi-pastel and aqua-looking, that part of the book seems to me to convey tranquility. Then again, the design puts me to sleep. The design should not put anyone to sleep since the material is challenging and expanding. A more vibrant color, like orange or yellow, may liven up the focus on what may be potentially dreary, challenging material for some. Heck, even a picture of an orange or a lemon may work. Moreover, that big blotch of dingy lime green on the front cover is a major eyesore. In fact, that big blotch of nasty Army green made me want to vomit. And if you don't like the description of the front, you will NOT like the back cover. It is worse.

The authors did not take the time to consider the exciting and the serious nature of English Grammar and Usage. For example, the words and the sentences used as examples in the book and in the study guide are archaic. While some arcaic words and sentences used are appropriate, the majority of sentences were not cutting-edge to excite the student to actually want to participate in the exciting way English can be understood. While the authors went out of their way to be inclusive (to new directions in English [with the ESL and the consideration of Ebonics]), MAJOR kudos to them for that. However, the Standard English used in the book is more late-50's and early-60's-oriented for people who live in exclusive communities without a hint of race, of ethnocentricity, or of GLBT sexual orientation. In other words, this book was written for a specific audience-- suburban Whites who are still listening to radio channels that air music from the '50's and the '60's (Good music, but... integrate all ready! For heaven's sake, the U.S. President is black.) Language should reflect the people who speak it. Language should not be used to educate the few exclusive people who want to keep English for themselves for personal power to subjugate others. The authors need to throw a little somethin'-sumpin' in to it: LaShaniqua picked her afro. Roberto ate tamales for lunch. Billy-Bob strummed his guitar at the dance. The authors need to make the language they use come alive for the students who are to learn it. Dumbing down the reality of English Usage hurts everyone who speaks it.

There is not enough exclamation about the book as a new grammatical approach to English Grammar and Usage. This book is not your grand-ma-ma's book from some "Traditional Grammar" era. This is a cutting-edge book, using Structural and Transformational grammar. BE EXCITED ABOUT IT. The presentation of the overall material is a SEDATIVE in itself. While the outline is concise, the chapter editing is not to die for. This non-traditional grammar NEEDS new, contemporary-usage examples.

The book is too expensive. If the authors expect for people to pay exorbitant prices, for a substandard piece of crap like the UEG, then the authors need to value-add bells and whistles to justify the cost.

There IS NOT an Annotated Instructor's Edition (AIE) available on Amazon.com or other sites. The AIE is sold only on the Longman Pearson website. Selling this book and its guide in one location is enough proof that this book is a spin-doctor's creation. That means, someone added a bunch of words to a seriously concise book to artifically inflate the book's value. Plus, the AIE's absence from the market tells the consumer that the book is some sort of prototype with plenty of KNOWN errors in it. Moreover, I habitually purchase AIE's because, sometimes, my professors are wrong. Since I cannot understand the professor's explanation of covered material from time to time, I often find that reading the AIE helps me understand what the professor could not get across to me. It benefits us both.

Did I mention that the book is too tiny?

What makes the UEG well-written is that the information is outlined very well and transitions gracefully from idea to idea. Unfortunately, my instructor did not follow the printed outline. He chose to start at the beginning and then move to the back of the book. While his pattern of chapter orientation made sense, his redirection of chapter navigation was to allow students coming from Traditional Grammar backgrounds to learn something completely different cold-turkey: Structural and Transformational Grammar Usage.

I love this book. I have highlighted all over it. However, my reasons to dislike the book are serious enough for any English major to consider. I hope Kolln and Funk can get it together to make a way-better 9th edition.

I paid full-price for this book. In fair disclosure, I anticipate an "F" from this class.
Hey, I have a life. Sometimes life happens. Intensive study time, as this subject demands, was forgone. My time was given to the tumultuous relationship with my boyfriend.

If you buy this book, buy it used! Good day."

"Fast delivery, but this used book wasn't in such a good condition as it was described ("very good"). A lot of the text is highlighted; the pages have many dog-ears and are damaged by water, especially the last ones."
 

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