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Person (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics(2004)  무료배송

 
지은이 : Anna Siewierska, S. R. Anderson
출판사 : Cambridge
판수 : 1 edition
페이지수 : 348 pages
ISBN : 0521776694
예상출고일 : 입금확인후 2일 이내
주문수량 :
도서가격 : 품절
     

 
Drawing on data from over five hundred languages, Anna Siewierska compares the use of person within and across different languages, and examines the factors underlying variation. Siewierska demonstrates how person forms vary in substance (how large they are), in the nature of the semantic distinctions they convey (e.g., gender, number, case), and in their use in sentences and discourse. The textbook covers the grammatical category of person, which includes the first person (the speaker), the second person (the hearer), and the third person (neither the speaker nor the hearer).
Anna Siewierska is Professor of Linguistics and Human Communication at Lancaster University.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Person as a grammatical category 1
1.1.1 Person paradigms 4
1.1.2 First and second persons vs third person 5
1.2 The universality of person markers 8
1.3 The nature of this book 14

2 The typology of person forms 16
2.1 Morpho-phonological form 16
2.1.1 Independent forms 17
2.1.2 Dependent person markers 21
2.2 Syntactic function 40
2.2.1 Syntactic function and morpho-phonological form 40
2.2.2 The encoding of syntactic function 47
2.3 Discourse function 67

3 The structure of person paradigms 75
3.1 Fewer than three persons 75
3.2 Variation with respect to number 79
3.2.1 More than one person and the inclusive/exclusive distinction 82
3.2.2 Duals and larger numbers 88
3.2.3 Number and the person hierarchy 92
3.2.4 Towards a typology of paradigmatic structure 96
3.3 Variation in gender 103
3.3.1 Gender and the person hierarchy 104
3.3.2 Gender and number 107
3.3.3 Gender and the inclusive/exclusive distinction 110
3.4 Differences between paradigms 112
3.4.1 Independent vs dependent paradigms 112
3.4.2 Differences between dependent forms 118

4 Person agreement 120
4.1 Anaphoric pronoun vs person agreement marker 121
4.2 The targets of person agreement 127
4.2.1 Predicates 129
4.2.2 Possessed nouns 138
4.2.3 Adpositions and other targets 145
4.3 The controllers of person agreement 148
4.3.1 The person hierarchy 149
4.3.2 The nominal hierarchy 151
4.3.3 The animacy hierarchy 154
4.3.4 The referential hierarchy 156
4.3.5 The focus hierarchy 159
4.4 The markers of person agreement 162
4.4.1 Person agreement and morpho-phonological form 162
4.4.2 The location of person markers 163

5 The function of person forms 173
5.1 Cognitive discourse analysis and referent accessibility 174
5.2 Referent accessibility and the distribution of person forms in discourse 178
5.2.1 Entity saliency 178
5.2.2 Unity 183
5.3 Accessibility and the intra-sentential distribution of person forms 185
5.3.1 Chomsky’s Binding Theory 185
5.3.2 Referent accessibility and BT 191
5.3.3 The avoid pronoun constraint 198
5.4 Beyond referent accessibility 200
5.4.1 Long-distance reflexives, logophoricity and point of view 201
5.4.2 Person marker vs other referential expression and speaker empathy 207
5.5 Person markers and impersonalization 210

6 Person forms and social deixis 214
6.1 Alternation in semantic categories 215
6.1.1 Variation in number 216
6.1.2 Variation in person 222
6.1.3 The use of reflexives 224
6.2 Special honorific person markers 228
6.3 Omission of person markers 235

7 Person forms in a diachronic perspective 246
7.1 The sources of person markers 247
7.1.1 Lexical sources 247
7.1.2 Demonstratives 249
7.1.3 Other person markers 251
7.1.4 Conjugated verbal forms 255
7.1.5 Other grammatical markers 260
7.2 From independent person marker to syntactic agreement marker 261
7.2.1 Three accounts of the early stages of the grammaticalization of person markers 263
7.2.2 Syntactic agreement markers 268
7.3 Language externally driven changes in person marking 273
7.3.1 Borrowing of person markers 274
7.3.2 Loss of person agreement 277

Appendix 1. List of languages in the sample by macro-area 282
Appendix 2. Genetic classification of languages cited in the text 284

References 296
Author index 312
Language index 316
Subject index 324


'Any naive expectation that person is a straightforward category of grammar, with few differences among languages, is quickly dispelled by the immense complexity of the data presented. ... [it contains] an enormous amount of information collated over years of painstaking consultation of grammars and presented for the first time. ... a goldmine of inspiration. ... Siewierska is to be congratulated on establishing the study of person as a unified, if highly complex, field within linguistics.' Folia Linguistica
"As a student of languages, the marking of verbal person forms is something that I overlooked for so many years because most of the major languages spoken in the world today have extremely limited or utterly non-existent person marking on their verbs, as can be seen from chapter 22 of The World Atlas of Language Structures. However, reading Joanna Nichols' classic Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time made it clear to me that person marking on verbs was a very important issue in linguistic diversity and the results of the book raised many questions for me, such as why two-place verbal agreement was so much more common than three-place, and why the latter was restricted almost completely to fully ergative languages (where both nominals and verbs were aligned ergatively). the key point Nichols showed was that an unmarked and easily learned language actually has much more extensive verbal person marking than the widely spoken languages of the industrial world today.

In "Person" Anna Siewierska unveils very effectively the way natural languages actually mark person on verbs so that it becomes possible to see how the variety of possible verbal person systems actually arrange themselves. She moves very logically not only through actual person affixes on verbs, but also through the world of independent personal pronouns, in the process going very clearly though how these forms compare with subject and object affixes on verbs and adpositions or possessive affixes on nouns.

Siewierska shows some quite surprising patterns of verbal person marking: for instance how non-ergative head-marking languages tend always to mark the recipient but not the theme of a ditransitive verb, and how ergative and stative-active head-marking encourages two-place verb agreement because of the low animacy of patient arguments which often side with the subject of an intransitive verb in such languages.

Another fascinating feature is how Siewierska shows the two conflicting theories about where affixes for subject and object are likely to be placed in a language. They are known grammatically as the Head-Dependent Ordering Principle and the Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis. Whereas the former predicts person affixes will locate in the same positions as other affixes are typically found (prefixes in head-initial languages and suffixes in head-final ones), the Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis suggests that affixes will locate in exactly the reverse positions. (The Diachronic Syntax Hypothesis is, as it turns out, actually more accurate than the Head Ordering Principle with object affixes, though less so with subject ones). There is also a good deal of other information about dependent person markers: for instance, how they position relative to each other and relative to other inflectional modifiers of the verb that oddly does not suffer from failing to be noticeably deep because it accepts so well how many questions about this issue are very hard to resolve.

All in all, "Person" is a very valuable tool for those curious about how languages work, and comes firmly recommended for the linguistic library. "

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